The plant body is differentiated into 4 parts-roots, stems, leaves and flowers. Of these roots, stem and leaves are considered as vegetative organs whereas flowers are considered as reproductive organs. The parts of the plant which occur below the surface of the soil form the root system. The roots are no green and branched.
The aerial parts which occur above the surface of the soil form the shoot system. It consists of stem, leaves and flowers. The main axis of the shoot is called stem. The stem is generally branched. Stem bears a number of green, flat photosynthetic structures called the leaves. The leaves are of various shapes and sizes. The point at which a leaf originates on the stem is called the node.
The part the stem between two nodes is known as internodes. From the axil of the leaves, the buds develop. Each bud has a small axis and a group of minute leaves. The bud seen at the tip of the stem is called the apical bud or terminal bud. This bud may either grow into a vegetative branch or develop into a flower.
Functions of various parts:
Root: It fixes the plant firmly to the soil. It absorbs water and minerals from the soil. In some cases they store food materials.
Stem: Supports the branches, leaves etc., Conducts water and minerals and food to various parts of the plant body. They store
food materials and in some cases carry put photosynthesis.
Leaves: Prepare the food by photosynthesis
Flowers: It is the sexually reproducing part. They are bright in color to attract agents for pollination