Five Kingdom Classifications

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In 1969,R.H.Whittaker proposed the five kingdom classification. He classified the living organisms into five
kingdoms. The criteria used for classification are

a. Cell structure

b. Thallus organization

c. Mode of nutrition

d. Reproduction

e. Phylogenetic relationships.

The five kingdoms are Kingdom Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.

Kingdom Monera:-The members are prokaryotic and microscopic organisms. True nucleus and membrane
bound organelles are absent in these organisms.

Kingdom Protista:-It includes primarily unicellular aquatic eukaryotic organisms. The cells of the protists
have true nucleus and other membrane bound organelles and non-membranous organelles.


Kingdom Fungi:-It includes eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic organisms. Yeast is an exceptional
fungus which is unicellular.

Kingdom Plantae: It includes all plants. They are autotrophs,Some plants are partially heterotrophic such as
insectivorous plants and parasites. It includes multicellular algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms
and Angiosperms. They are primarily producers on lands and  are immobile .They have cellulosic cell wall.
The life cycle of plants exhibit alternation of generation. There are two distinct phases In the life cycle of
plants-the diploid sporophytic phase and the haploid gametophyticphase. Both of these phases alternate with
each other and this phenomenon is called alternation of generation

Kingdom Animalia: It includes multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes. The cells are without cell wall. They
directly or indirectly depends on plants for their food. They digest the food in an internal cavity and store it as
glycogen or fat. They have a definite growth pattern. They grow into adults with a definite size and shape.
They are holozoic and mobile. They exhibit heterotrophic mode of nutrition.

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