In an ecosystem, the transfer or flow of energy from one trophic level to others in succession. A trophic level can be defined as the number of links by which it is separated from the producer. The pattern of eating and being eaten forms a linear chain called food chain which can always be traced back to the producers. A food chain usually consists of producers, various levels of consumers and decomposers. Decomposers are often omitted because they operate at all the levels of a food chain
Primary producers: Coniferous forest is largely a zone of forests. They differ from other types of forests in that they usually consist of a single species of trees. Dominant trees are spruces, firs, hemlocksandpines. Some deciduous trees like peeper, birch and aspen are also found.
Primary consumers are browsers eating only twigs and leaves from trees and shrubs. Squirrels, siskins and crossbills feed upon the seeds of conifers. Insects like the spruce bird worm, spruce bark beetle and tend caterpillar are also seen. Other animals found there are black bear, marten, porcupine, varying hare, hair wood pecker etc. Migratory share birds and water fowls flock to the lakes, ponds and bogs are abundant in coniferous forests.
Secondary consumers: Secondary consumers are the small carnivores: gray wolf, red fox, horned owl etc.