Adrenal Cortex Secretes

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Adrenal glands are present on the upper border of kidneys. The glands are embedded in adipose tissue. Each gland is covered by a capsule of connective tissue. The hormones produced by them are required for maintaining carbohydrate metabolism, mineral balance and external sexual characters. Each adrenal gland is composed of two regions, an outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla. These two differ in their development and function.

The hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex are called corticoids (corticoid hormones).Based on their function corticoid hormones are classified as- Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.

Glucocorticoids:- The corticoids involved in carbohydrate metabolism are called glucocorticoids. They stimulate gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and proteolysis and also inhibit cellular uptake and utilization of amino acids. The important glucocorticoids in our body are Cortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone .Cortisol prepares our body for after effects of danger situation. It controls the pumping action of the heart and reduces the pain. Cortisone is concerned with preparing the body against any sudden stress. Corticosterone helps the body's metabolic system to turn amino acids into carbohydrates to use as fuel for many bodily functions

Mineralocorticoids: They are the Corticoids which regulate the balance of water and electrolytes in the body. They are secreted by the outermost layer of the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone is the most important mineralocorticoid in our body. It acts on the renal tubules and stimulates the reabsorption of Na+ and water. It stimulates excretion of K+ and phosphate ions

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