Membranous Organelles

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Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organism. Cell consists of many cell organelles, which
has a definite shape, structure and function.
The membrane bound organelles are:

Nucleus-it is the brain of the cell living certain dense bodies called nucleoli and a network of thread like structures called chromatin which contains the DNA. It regulates growth and reproduction of cells, Chromosomes in nucleus are the bearers of hereditary materials and Nucleolus in the nucleus stores proteins

Mitochondria - They are living, various shapes, and double walled, inner membrane thrown into folds called
cristae. They release energy and synthesize respiratory enzyme 
Endoplasmic reticulum-it is a living, network of tubular membrane. Connected at one end to the nucleus and on the other end to the plasma membrnae. May be smooth or rough. If ribosomes are present on them they are rough and if it is absent it is smooth. They provide a pathway for distribution of nucleus nuclear material and provide supporting skeletal frame work of the cell Golgi apparatus-they are living, consists of tubules, vesicles and vacuoles. They secretes enzymes and hormones Plastids-living double walled structure with a proteinaceous matrix. Contains DNA.

Three types of plastids:

1.chloroplast is the site for photosynthesis.

2. Chromoplast-impart color to flowers and fruits

3. Leucoplast-stores starch, lipids and proteins

Lysosomes- living, sac like vesicles with proteinaceous matrix.
They synthesize digestive enzymes, provide energy during cell starvation.

Peroxisomes- Living membrane bound sac. Seen in kidney and liver cells.
Helps in the removal of toxic substances

Vacuoles - They are nonliving part, fluid filled spaces enclosed by membrane
They stores excess water, mineral, food substances, pigments and waste products.


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